References, glossary and acronyms


Beatson, A., Buettner, A., & Schirato, T. (2014). Social Media, Crisis Mapping and the Christchurch Earthquakes of 2011. MEDIANZ: Media Studies Journal of Aotearoa New Zealand, 14(1).

Brown, D. M. (2011). Communicating design: developing web site documentation for design and planning (2nd ed). Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

Bruns, A., & Burgess, J. (2012). Local and Global Responses to Disaster:  #eqnz and the Christchurch Earthquake. In EARTH: FIRE AND RAIN: Australian & New Zealand Disaster and Emergency Management Conference.

Crisismappers. (n.d.). CrisisMappers - THE HUMANITARIAN TECHNOLOGY NETWORK. Retrieved June 28, 2016, from

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do. Amsterdam ; Boston: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Fowlie, G. (2016, May 23). Humanitarian aid is as close as your phone. Retrieved May 24, 2016, from

George, D. (2015, June 13). “No civil defence” to help | Otago Daily Times Online News : Otago, South Island, New Zealand & International News. Retrieved May 22, 2016, from

GNS Science. (n.d.). Likelihood Phase / It’s Our Fault / IOF / Home - GNS Science. Retrieved June 28, 2016, from

Hall, S. (2012, October 26). The Rise and Fall of Bushfire Connect. Retrieved from

Harvard  Humanitarian  Initiative. (2011). Disaster Relief 2.0: The Future of  Information Sharing in

Humanitarian Emergencies. Washington,  D.C.  and  Berkshire,  UK: UN Foundation & Vodafone Foundation Technology Partnership.

Lee, B. (2013, February 22). Revisiting The Promise of Societal Verification in the Age of Social Media | WMD Junction. Retrieved June 28, 2016, from

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.

Meier, P. (2012a). NG Live!: Patrick Meier: Crisis Mapping. Presented at the National Geographic Explorers Symposium, Washington, D.C. Retrieved from

Meier, P. (2012b, April 14). Crisis Mapping Haiti: Some Final Reflections - Ushahidi. Retrieved from

Meier, P. (2012c, July 2). How Crisis Mapping Saved Lives in Haiti | National Geographic (blogs). Retrieved from

Meier, P. (2015). Digital Humanitarians : How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved from

Mell, P., & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (No. NIST Special Publication 800-145). Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management. (n.d.). Key Messages » Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management [Government]. Retrieved June 27, 2016, from

Mitchell, A., Glavovic, B., Hutchinson, B., MacDonald, G., Roberts, M., & Goodland, J. (n.d.). Community-based Civil Defence Emergency Management Planning. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 2010–1. Retrieved from (2016, May). Operating system market share [Market Share Statistics for Internet Technologies]. Retrieved June 29, 2016, from

New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs. (2008). National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy 2007. Wellington [N.Z.: Dept. of Internal Affairs. Retrieved from$file/National-CDEM-strategy-2008.pdf

Rhoades, D. A., Vn Dissen, R. J., Langridge, R. M., Little, T. A., Ninis, D., Smith, E. G. C., & Robinson, R. (2011). Re-Evaluation of Conditional Probability of Rupture of The Wellington-Hutt Valley Segment of the Wellington Fault. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(2), 77–86.

Seki, H. (2011, April 20). Crisis Mapping Japan - Ushahidi. Retrieved from

Shirky, C. (2010). Cognitive surplus: creativity and generosity in a connected age. New York: Penguin Press.

The rise of the sharing economy. (2013, March 7). The Economist. Retrieved from

Waikato Civil Defence and Emergency Group. (2015). What is Civil Defence? Retrieved June 27, 2016, from

Web Accessibility Standard 1.0 | Standards | New Zealand Government Web Toolkit. (n.d.). Retrieved June 27, 2016, from

Ziemke, J. (2012). Crisis Mapping: The Construction of a New Interdisciplinary Field? Journal of Map & Geography Libraries, 8(2), 101–117.



From Beatson, Buettner, & Schirato, 2014:
Estellés and González (2012, 9) define crowdsourcing as ‘a type of participative online activity in which an individual, an institution, a non-­profit organisation, or company proposes to a group of individuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, and number, via a flexible open call, the voluntary Undertaking of a task’.

The Cloud/Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. (Mell & Grance, 2011)


A software code base that runs on The Cloud. This is usually proprietary: eg: Facebook, Twitter, Google Maps and the WREMO community map, when it exists.

User Experience Design

The design process usually framing the creation of software in a human- or user-centered, or needs focussed approach. Although definitions vary in specificity, sometimes used interchangeably with IxD: Interaction Design and XD: Experience design.



Appendices > Appendix 5


Prepare Wellington > The research team